The Education of habits in primary school children
Each person needs to acquire such habits that were his “friends” and not “enemies” to assist them to live and work, and not interfere in my life to not have to waste a lot of energy to deal with them.
This makes it clear that the task of teachers is to educate students good habits and the elimination of harmful. And to do it best in an earlier age, when the plasticity of the nervous system in children is still quite high. Child rearing is largely supposed to be the nurturing of good habits.
A. S. Makarenko wrote: “I admit that may be a point when the student will be correct, Soviet Patriotic views, but not brought up correctly by the Soviet habit. This is especially important when it comes to the upbringing of such qualities as patience, the ability to overcome a long period of difficulties, to take obstacles with a jerk, and pressure. No matter how much you created the right ideas about what to do, but if you don’t nurture habits to overcome a long period of difficulties, I have the right to say that nothing you have brought up. In short, I demand that the children’s lives was organized as the experience of raising a certain group of habits. ”
To develop habits need to repeat the action. But repetition may seem boring child, uninteresting. If this repetition is reinforced by praise, approval, children experience positive emotions, the action is nice, you want to repeat and thereby transform into habitual action.
To acquire useful habit, you need to make a firm decision. But not enough to stick with one good intention. If this intention does not go into effect, and the corresponding habit is formed. If the teacher wants to teach a child to be neat, to wipe their feet before entering the school, to be polite to the elders and friends, it is useless to read to children notation on this topic. Explaining, why do so, and not otherwise, we should require a corresponding action (“Go and wash your hands”; “come Back, wipe your feet”; “Apologize to a friend”). Habits never arise from some verbal suggestions. Only repeat actions can make these actions habitual.
To eradicate bad habits are also important firm resolve never to do the things you love to do, who must get rid of.
The first time when developing good habits or struggle with a bad habit especially need control over children by adults. The teacher noticed that the boy has a bad habit to continually distracted from work, look around, jump up, slow to write and even lazy to do. She spoke several times about this student, but no change in his behavior has not occurred. Then the teacher went to the student’s home, explained to the mother what a bad habit appeared at her son. Now together they began to teach the boy to work, “the preparation of this assignment will require not more than half an hour,’ said the teacher to the student, but provided that you’re not going to look around, to stop and talk. Don’t rush, but don’t get distracted”. The boy in the presence of a teacher your job well done in 20 minutes. The teacher praised the child and, outlining how much approximate time it will take to cook other tasks, asked my mother every day to monitor the work of the son. After a few days the teacher asked the boy how he likes to do: in a new way or the old way. The student replied that as he walks on the street as quickly preparing lessons. “And you can do to take care of myself?” — the teacher asked. “Can”.— “Then tell your mom to she stopped to sit beside you. Because she has other things to do. Put yourself about watch and try to meet at a certain time without losing a single minute to waste.” Thus the teacher was able to some extent to overcome the child’s bad habit and cultivate useful, every day was fixed thanks to the conscious attitude of the student and his mother.
In addition to solid decisions concerning the habits necessary to put themselves in such conditions in which it is difficult not to do a useful action and cannot be repeated harmful. Great help in this can provide the team. It really helps a promise that the student gives the class mates. Don’t run it a lot more difficult than the word itself.
A bad habit you need to “root” (as eradicate, uproot plants-weeds), i.e. immediately and forever to renounce the usual, but harmful actions.
Of great importance is the motive, in virtue of which the child repeats an action to develop healthy habits. If the action is committed by him as a punishment, the result will be weak. If the child is useful to clarify the meaning of repeated action, the habit is formed pretty quickly. It is clear that the comments aimed at the eradication of bad habits that should not be offensive to children of the form. It is sometimes useful to be ashamed of the child, but it must be done with adherence measure.
We must not forget that it is necessary to prevent the formation of bad habits, and for this not to repeat the harmful action.
Proper organization of educational work, skillful pedagogical influence on the child, in particular instilling in him a sense of duty, skill to see its shortcomings, the education of willpower, determination and hard work, will do much to facilitate the development he has good habits and prevent the emergence and consolidation of harmful habits.
Questions for review
1. What activity is the main students? What are its features?
2. Specify the key elements in the learning process.
3. What contributes to the success of academic work of a student?
4. What relationship exists between learning and child development?
5. What is the educative influence of training?
6. What is the psychological importance problem-based learning?
7. What impact does game of physical and mental development of the child?
8. What are the characteristics of the labor of children of primary school age?
9. What conditions are necessary for successful development of skills?
10. Specify the characteristic moments of their formation.
11. How to nurture good habits and to combat harmful?
1. Observe various types of educational activities in primary school me and tell me how these species affect the psyche of children.
2. Do the same in respect of different games to younger children.
3. Watch a series of essays and summaries of primary school children and find in them the elements of creativity. Compare them with the works uncreative nature.
4. Watch school pupils and say to what extent they possess the necessary skills.
5. Find out what habits (good and bad) have students for whom you conduct regular supervision.
6. Please indicate what measures should be taken to instill in the children good habits and eliminate harmful.